Tank BM BULAT is the result of modernization of the tank T-64B. The aim of the modernization was to bring the battle and technical characteristics of the tank up to the present level.

Modernization is carried out in three main directions:

  • Mobility (power unit modernization, mobility characteristics improved by installing 5TDFM engine)
  • Protection (reducing the vulnerability of modern anti-tank means, by installing additional passive protection, built-in dynamic protection and air defense systems)
  • Fire power (modernization of armament and fire control complex with the purpose of increasing the efficiency of fire, due to the installation of a fire control system 1A43U, night-time sighting complex of the commander of PNK-4CR, a new drive of the mechanism of charge with a two-way rotation
Main Characteristics of the Upgraded BM Bulat Battle Tank
Parameter Unit Value
General
Weight t 45
Crew crewmen 3
Power-to-weight ratio h.p./t 18,9
Ground pressure kgf/cm2 less than 0,98
Operating temperature range  °С -40...+55
Centigrade Gradient ° 30
Side slope ° 25
Trench m 2,85
Vertical obstacle m 0,8
Deep fording without preparation  m 1,8
Deep fording with preparation  m 5,0
Gun
Name KBA3 or 2A46M-1
Type smoothbore
Calibre mm 125
Coaxial machine gun
Model KT-7,62 or PKT
Calibre mm 7,62
Anti-aircraft machine gun system
Type self-contained, can be fired from within the safety of the turret under complete armour protection, stabilised in the vertical axis
Sights PZU-7
Anti-aircraft machine gun
Model KT-12,7 or NSVT-12,7
Calibre mm 12,7

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Mobility

In order to increase mobility, the vehicle is fitted with an enhanced power pack. The new power pack contains a 850 hp 5TDFM engine, which is a forced version of the 5TDF engine with power output being increased.

Installation of the 5TDFM engine requires replacement of the original air cleaner with a new one and re-designing of the exhaust system.

Technical characteristics of the T-64B battle tank before and after modernization of its power pack

Parameter unit Value
T-64B BM BULAT
General
Weight t 40,6 (42,5 for T-64BV) 45
Power-to-weight ratio h.p./t 17,2 (16,5 for Т-64BV) 18,9
Engine
Type Two-stroke, five-cylinder diesel with gas turbine supercharging, liquid-cooled, with horizontal placement of cylinders and boxing pistons
Model 5TDF 5TDFM
Maximum power output h.p. 700 850 (1000 for 6TD-1)
Engine speed at maximum power output rpm 2800 2800
Specific fuel consumption at maximum power output g/h.p.-h 178 >160(158 - 6TD-1)
Engine length mm 1413 1413
Engine width mm 955 955
Engine height mm 581 581
Engine weight (dry) kg 1040 1040
Air supply system
Type Two-stage system with ejection-type removal of dust: the first stage - bunker with inertial grid; the second stage - cyclone-type air cleaner (without cassettes)
Air cleaner maintenance rate  km 350 400
Compressor
Type Piston-type three-stage two-cylinder air-cooled compressor
Model AK-150SV
Operational pressure kg/cm2 135 165
Capacity m3/h 2.4
Gearbox
Type Planetary gearbox with frictional switching-on and hydraulic control
Quantity pcs 2
Number of forward gears 7
Number of reverse gears 1


Operational characteristics

Parameter units Value
T-64B BM BULAT
Fuel consumption per hour while on the move  lt/h 104 113
Fuel consumption lt/km 4,6 4,06
Fuel capacity lt 1270 1270
Average speed km/h 30 37
Cruise range km 306 385

The modernisation is carried out by means of replacement of the 5TDF engine with a 5TDFM engine, installation of a new air cleaner with increased engine-feeding air flow and re-designing of the exhaust system.

To modernise the power pack of the BM Bulat tank by means of installation of a 5TDFM engine, the following is required:

  • 5TDFM engine 1 set
  • Air cleaner 1 set
  • Spare parts and tools 1 set

Rubber Pads for the BM Bulat Tank

The SE KMDB has developed a design of rubber pads, manufactured the rubber pads and tested them on the tracks of the BM Bulat tank and its versions. No re-designing of the track components is required.

The rubber pads with fasteners are to be supplied separately.

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Modernisation of the armament-and-fire control system results in the following combat characteristics

When modernised, the armament-and-fire control system of the BM BULAT MBT has better characteristics than the armament-and-fire control system of the T-80UD MBT.

Scope of Modernisation

Enhancement of combat characteristics is achieved by the installation of the following instruments and systems:

  • Gunner's 1G46M sight
  • Gunner's TO1-KO1ER night sighting system (Ukrainian-made). It is possible to install the Buran-Catherine thermal imager instead of the TO1-KO1ER system
  • 1V528-1 tank ballistic computer
  • Some instruments and units of the 2E42M main armament stabiliser
  • PNK-5SR observation and sighting system
  • PZU-7 anti-aircraft machine gun system sight
  • 1ETs29M anti-aircraft machine gun system control system
  • TAKO-621 guided weapon system

Modernisation of the armament-and-fire control system results in the following combat characteristics

For gunner

Parameter Units Value
T-64B BM BULAT
Effective firing range
by day m 1700...2000 2300...2500
by night m 400...600 1200...1500
Hit probability of the guided missile
at range of 4,000 m m 0,8 0,8
at range of 5,000 m m - 0,8
Probability of trustworthy target ranging (target of the TANK type) by means of laser range-finder at ranges of
500...2500 m 0,9 0,9
2500...3000 m 0,7 0,9
3000...4000 m 0,5 0,9
if screening objects are available 0,5 (manual selection) 0,8 (automatic selection)
Systematic ranging error m 25 25


For commander

Parameter Units Value
T-64B BM BULAT
Target detection range
by day m 2000 4000
at night m 400 800
Error of target designation to the gunner mrd < 40 < 4
Effective firing range in the override mode
by day m Firing the main gun or coaxial machine gun from the commander's station is not envisaged 1200...1500
at night m 800...1000
Firing at ground and air targets from the anti-aircraft machine gun in the stabilised mode on the move no In the 'AAMG-AUTO' mode by using the TKN-4SR sight
Automatic introduction of angles of sight (PNK-4, PNK-5) no yes
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Armament-and-fire control system specifications
Parameter Units Value
Gunner's 1G46M primary sight
target detection range m 5000
field of view degrees 20...4,5
megnification x 2,7...12(панкратическое)
head mirron stabilization error mrad 0,2
stabilised line-of-sight drift speed, with allowing for the semi-automatic drift compensation system  mrad/min 2,0 (1G46M)
laser range-finder wave length mkm 1,06
measured ranges  m 400...5000
probability of trustworthy measurement of distance to a target of the TANK type 0,9
systematic ranging error m 25
missile guidance capability available (laser beam-based)
built-in test equipment available
Additionally
increase of stability of output parameters of the 1G46M due to availability of automatic thermal compensation of the output parameters
increase of aiming accuracy and decrease of shot preparation time due to availability of automatic drift compensation
improvement of maintainability and protection against destruction due to modular design and reduction of the outlet window size by twice
Gunner's TO1-KO1ER night sighting system (Ukrainian-made TPN-4ER sight)
visibility range in the passive mode at natural night illumination of 3-510-3 lx m 1400
line-of-sight stabilisation:
in azimuth automatic
in elevation manual, depending on the value in the information eyepiece
introduction of:
angles of sight digital-and-analogue
lateral lead angles automatic for all ranges with allowance for deviation of the firing conditions from the normal ones, individual jump angles and geometrical parallax between the main gun, machine gun and sight
1V528-12 tank ballistic computer
type digital-and-analogue
calculation of angles of sight and lead angles for firing the main gun and coaxial machine gun automatic calculation for all ranges with allowance for the deviations of the firing conditions from the normal ones, jump and throw-off angles specific to the barrel and geometrical parallax between the gun, machine gun and sight
2E42M main armament stabiliser
drives:
in azimuth electromechanical
in elevation electrohydraulical
mean error of stabilisation 
in azimuth mrad 0,4
по вертикали mrad 0,3
change-over speed of turret traversing  degrees/s 40-5
Commander's PNK-4SR observation and sighting system
type combined day/night
target detection range
by day m 4000
at night at natural night illumination of 3-5·10-3lx in the passive m 800
field-of-view stabilisation
type in vertical plane
stabilisation accuracy  mrad 0,3
magnification
day channel x 1; 7,8
night channel x 1
PZU-7 anti-aircraft machine gun system sight
field of view  degrees 50
magnification x 1,2
1ETs29 anti-aircraft machine gun system control system
modes of operation stabilised observation (together with TKN-4SR sight)
AAMG-AUTO - anti-aircraft machine gun system is stabilised in the vertical plane with the aid of the TKN-4SR sight
AAMG-SEMIAUTO - together with PZU-7 sight
TAKO-621 guided weapon system
type Control system based on a laser beam with the missile automatically keeping to the centre of the beam
firing ranges m 100...5000
hit probability
at ranges up to 4000m 0,9
at range of 5000m 0,8
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Protection

Increase of protection level of T-64B tank is ensured by means of installation of an additional protection package on the hull and turret of the tank. The additional protection package is intended to considerably increase the tank's protection level against chemical energy attack weapons and kinetic energy attack weapons (armour-piercing fin-stabilised discarding sabot ammunition) at minimum possible increase of the tank weight.

Components of the package

The additional protection package comprises passive (add-on) armour protection and built-in explosive reactive armour (ERA). The explosive reactive armour consists of nose module and side skirts installed on the tank hull, as well as modular sections placed along the outer perimeter of the front and side parts of the turret, and containers installed on the turret roof.

Each section of the explosive reactive armour and the containers installed on the turret roof contain explosive reactive armour panels.

Efficiency

Installation of the additional protection package results in increase of protection level of the BM Bulat tank:

  • against chemical attack weapons - by a factor of 2.2
  • against kinetic attack weapons - by a factor of 1.9

The additional protection package enables the tank to be protected against the following destruction weapons:

  • antitank hand grenades and projectiles fired from hand-held and heavy grenade launchers and recoilless guns
  • against anti-tank guided missiles such as TOW-2, Milan, and Shturm-S
  • against shaped charge projectiles fired from 125-mm smoothbore tank guns (ZBK-14(14M), ZBK-18)
  • against armour-piercing fin-stabilised discarding sabot projectiles fired from 125 mm smoothbore tank guns (ZBM-22, ZBM-26, ZBM-42

Technical characteristics

The weight of the additional protection package together with mounting and fastening parts and with explosive reactive armour panels is 3,500 kilogrammes.

The time required for installation of the set of explosive reactive armour panesls on one tank by efforts of its crew is 5.5 to 6 hours.

The explosive reactive armour panels installed on the tank do not require any special maintenance while the tank is in service.

The work on fitting the tank with the additional protection package does not require any non-standard technological equipment or contrivances of highly skilled specialists.

The following is required for modernisation of the armoured protection of the BM Bulat tank:

  • Front protection module of the hull nose
  • Parts and sub-assemblies of additional armoured protection of the turret
  • Parts and sub-assemblies required for modernisation of the fenders
  • Side skirts and shields of the hull
  • Explosive reactive armour panels of the Nozh type

Add-on armour is installed on the front and side parts of the turret.

ERA is installed on the front and side parts of the turret as well as on the turret roof.

Measures Increase of resistance
to APFSDS to HEAT
Hull
Installation of add-on armour and ERA 190% Н1 220% Н1
Installation of side skirts with ERA 280% Н2 220% Н2
Turret
Installation of add-on armour and ERA 190% Н1 220% Н1

Fire Suppression System

In order to increase protection of the BM Bulat tanks and their crews in case of a fire in the tank's fighting compartment or power pack compartment, the tank is fitted with a quick-action fire suppression system, which reduces the response time in the crew compartment down to 150 ms, this resulting in a 20% decrease of no-restoration losses.

Components of the fire suppression system:

  • optical sensors and heat sensors
  • bottles with fire extinguishing mixture
  • control equipment
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