The T-55AGM tank is a version of modernisation of T-54, T-55, T-59 and T-62 tanks.
In order to enhance all its main combat, technical and operational characteristics, it is fitted with the following:
Modernizations are subjected to:
In order to increase the firepower of the T-55AGM tank, modernisation of the fighting compartment is offered. The modernisation consists in installation of a 125 mm KBM1 smoothbore gun or 120 mm KBM2 smoothbore gun, coaxial machine gun, and automatic loader located in an armoured compartment in the turret bustle.
The offered 120 mm smoothbore gun (KBM2) is a re-designed KBM1 gun and meets the requirements of NATO standards.
Use of enhanced performance conventional ammunition and barrel-launched guided missiles makes it possible to defeat modern tanks by means of armour-piercing projectiles at distances of 2000-3000 m and by means of guided missiles at distances of up to 5,000 m.
|Barrel length, mm||6000 mm (48 calibres)||6000 mm (50 calibres)|
|Normal recoil length, mm||260...300|
|Maximum recoil length (STOP), mm||310|
|Number of brakes of recoil parts||Two|
|Arrangement of brakes of recoiling parts||Symmetrical relative to the axis of the barrel bore|
|Number of rollers||One|
|Loading||Automatic, semi-automatic, manual|
|Ammunition types||APFSDS, HEAT, HE-FRAG||All types of ammunition that meet the requirements of NATO standards, Ukrainian-made guided missile|
|Number of rounds||At least 30 (18 in automatic loader)|
|Model||KT-7,62 or PKT-7,62|
|Location||On the right of the main gun|
Anti-aircraft machine gun system that can be fired from within the turret under complete armour protectionThe anti-aircraft machine gun system is installed on the commander's cupola and is intended to fire at air and ground targets.
|Model||KT-12,7 or NSVT-12,7|
|Rate of fire, rounds/min||700|
|Firing conditions||stationary or moving|
|Accurate firing distance, m|
|by day||up to 2000|
|by night||up to 800|
|Aiming range, deg|
|Control remote anti-aircraft machine gun system||automatic, stabilised in the vertical axis control mode (by using the TKN-5 sight), semi-automatic (by using the PZU-7 sight)|
Automatic loader is an electric-and-mechanical complex of units with digital control system and is intended to load the gun with any available type of ammunition from the automated ammo storage (conveyor) of the automatic loader. The automatic loader is located in an armoured compartment in the turret bustle.
Components of the automatic loader:
|Operating modes||Automatic, semi-automatic (step-by-step), emergency (manual)|
|Number of rounds in the automatic loader||18|
|Duration of one loading cycle in the automatic mode, s||6,5...7|
Installation of the automatic loader in the T-55AGM tank results in the following:
The T-55AGM tank can be fitted with an automatic loader either for 125 mm rounds or 120 mm rounds (NATO standard) with interchangeability being ensured.
The upgraded T-55AGM tank is fitted with an up-to-date weapon-and-fire control system, which enables the gunner and the commander to deliver fire at stationary and moving targets while the tank is stationary or moving, with a high first round hit probability.
The weapon-and-fire control system comprises gunner's 1K14 day/night sight, PTT-M thermal imaging sight with MATIS thermal camera developed by the SAGEM company, commander's PNK-4S observation and sighting system, PZU-7 anti-aitcraft sight, 1Ets29M anti-aircraft machine gun control system, LIO-V ballistic computer with input sensors, 2E42 armament stabiliser, and other devices.
The gunner's 1K14 day/night sight is provided with a two-axis stabilised line-of-sight, a built-in laser range-finder and a missile guidance capability (laser channel). The sight is also provided with an automatic compensation for gyro drift. The sight field-of-view has a magnification of x10.
The built-in laser range-finder makes it possible to measure target ranges up to 9990 m with accuracy of 10 metres. The measured range is displayed, together with ready-to-fire light and loaded ammunition type indication, in the lower part of the gunner's sight field-of-view.
The PTT-M thermal imaging sight consists of a gunner's optronic instrument, monitor and commander's control panel. The thermal imaging sight enables the gunner and the commander to detect targets and deliver fire (commander - in the override mode) at targets under almost all weather conditions at high distances and with a high accuracy (this ability is a big advantage when operating under conditions of poor visibility or at night). The thermal imaging sight also makes it possible to disregard a number of common obscurants, such as smoke, battlefield light bursts, etc.
The commander's PNK-4S observation and sighting system comprises a commander's TKN-4S combined day/night sight and a gun position sensor. The commander's TKN-4S combined sight is provided with a vertically-stabilised line-of-sight and three channels: unity vision day channel, magnified day channel with a degree of magnification of x7.6 and night channel with a degree of magnification of x5.8.
The anti-aircraft sight enables the commander to fire at air targets from the anti-aircraft machine gun from within the turret under complete armour protection.
The LIO-V ballistic computer is intended for computation of ballistic corrections. The computer automatically allows for the signals coming from the following sensors:
Additionally, the following parameters are manually input for calculations:
Turret traverse is electric while gun elevation is hydraulic. Gun and turret manual controls are provided for emergency use.
The specific feature of the tank consists in availability of guided weapon system, which makes it possible to fire laser beam-riding guided missiles from the main gun and engage targets at distances of up to 5,000 m with a hit probability of at least 0.8. The guided weapon system also enables the tank crew to engage hovering helicopters that can fire at tanks from a distance exceeding the maximum firing range of conventional tank ammunition.
Guided missile can be fired from the moving tank at a moving target. The missile is provided with a tandem warhead to defeat targets protected by explosive reactive armour or modern composite armour with enhanced protection ability against chemical energy ammunition.
Machine gun can be fired either from the gunner's station or the commander's station.
For the gunner:
For the gunner:
|Radio set ultra-short wave, receiving/transmitting|
|Working frequency range (kHz)||30,000-75,999 with interval of 1 kHz|
|Number of pre-selected frequencies||10|
|Radio coverage in cross-country on interference-free frequencies by using a 3-metre whip aerial (km)||20|
|Crew intercom system|
|Number of parties||4 (including tank-borne infantry telephone socket)|
The power pack that is offered for installation in the upgraded tanks, is based on the 5TDFM engine developing 850 hp. This power pack is designed and made as a separate module that is to be welded instead of the cut-out rear part of the hull.
The engine is a two-stroke multi-fuel diesel with direct flow scavenging, liquid-type cooling, horizontal cylinders and boxing pistons. The engine can burn various types of fuel including diesel fuel, petrol, kerosene, jet engine fuel or their mixture in any proportion.
Power is taken from both sides of the crankshaft. The engine is mounted by means of two cylindrical supports (which are coaxial with the power take-off shaft and are located at the ends of the engine) and a front support (which is located on the lower surface of the engine). This way of engine mounting requires no adjustment nor centering when installing the engine in the power pack (while both adjustment and centering are required in the standard version of the tank).
The main distinctive features of the power pack with 5TDFM engine include the following:
The cooling system is of liquid type, closed, forced, ejector-type. The ejector of the cooling system is operated by using the engine exhaust gas. Absence of a fan and drive reducer made it possible to considerably decrease the weight of the cooling system as well as ensuring a high level of reliability and self-control and enabling the tank to operate at high ambient temperatures without any degradation of performance.
The high-efficiency cyclone-cassette air cleaner provides purification of air from dust up to 99.8 %.
The modernisation results in the following:
|Engine type||Multi-fuel engine with supercharging, with boxing pistons, liquid cooled|
|Maximum power output (kW / hp)||625 / 850|
|Number of cylinders||5|
|Placement of cylinders||horizontal|
|Working volume (lt)||13.6|
|Specific fuel consumption (g/kW / g/hp-h)||218+14 / 160+10|
|Crankshaft rotation speed at maximum power output (rpm)||2800|
|Maximum torque (kg·m)||202|
|Crankshaft rotation speed at maximum torque (rpm)||2050|
|Overall dimensions (mm)|
The tank is fitted with a specific multiple reverse speed transmission and a vehicle movement control system, which have the following design peculiarities (if compared with the original T-55 tank):
The above-mentioned peculiarities made it possible to enhance the mobility and steering performance of the T-55AGM in comparison with the original T-55 tank as follows:
Modernisation of the T-55 tank running gear made it possible to increase its mobility by means of increasing the average speeds of movement in cross-country. This was achieved by fitting the tank with more powerful hydraulic shock absorbers and improved torsion bars.
In order to decrease the vibrations of the track when moving cross-country at higher speeds, the tank is fitted with track support rollers.
The additional protection package is intended to increase the level of protection of the tank against chemical energy attack as well as kinetic energy attack (APFSDS) with the minimum possible increase of tank weight.
The additional protection package consists of passive armour protection and explosive reactive armour.
The tank hull nose is fitted with a removable module. The hull sides are fitted with armoured skirting plates as well as rubberised fabric skirts.
The outer perimeter of the front and side parts of the turret is fitted with module sections while the turret roof is fitted with containers of the explosive reactive armour array.
Each section and each container contain explosive components of explosive reactive armour of new generation, designated Nozh.
The protective action of the explosive reactive armour against a chemical energy attack consists in destruction, crushing and changing the direction of the high-energy jet due to action of the explosive reactive armour fragments and products of detonation of the explosive that is stored inside the explosive reactive armour component and is initiated by the high-energy jet.
The protective action of the explosive reactive armour against a kinetic energy attack projectile consists in destruction of the projectile body and changing of the direction of its penetration due to action of the products of detonation of the explosive that is stored inside the explosive reactive armour component and is initiated by the kinetic energy of the projectile.
Installation of the explosive reactive armour increases the level of protection of the T-55AGM tank as follows:
The explosive reactive armour components do not detonate when hit by small arms bullets (7.62 mm and 12.7 mm in calibre) or automatic cannon rounds (up to 30 mm in calibre). Nor do they detonate when exposed to action of incendiary substances of Napalm type or destructive effects of volumetric explosions.
Dazzle coating of the external surfaces of the tank makes it less liable to be detected in the visible and near-infrared ranges of spectre when the enemy is observing the terrain through optical devices, image intensification night vision devices or low-level television cameras.
The thermal insulation of the power pack compartment top deck makes the tank less liable to be detected by enemy thermal imaging systems or to be sensed by homing warheads of missiles (projectiles, mines) which find targets by using thermal contrast.
In order to increase the protection of the T-55AGM tank, it is offered to fit it with an aerosol screen laying system.
The aerosol screen laying system is intended to decoy away anti-tank guided missiles that use semi-active laser-based homing warheads, as well as to create interference to artillery systems fitted with laser range-finders, by means of detecting laser irradiation, determining its direction and laying quick-to-generate aerosol screens.
|System power supply voltage (V)||27|
|Readiness time (s)||1|
|Continuos operation time||unlimited|
|System operating modes||
|Response time of the system in the automatic mode (s)||less than 0.5|
|Arc of protection|
|360° - with turret traverse|
|±45° - without turret traverse|
|Number of grenade launchers||12|
|Elevation angle relative to horizontal plane (degrees)||12|
The collective NBC protection system ensures protection of the crew and internal equipment against the effects of nuclear explosions, radioactive and toxic agents, as well as bacteriological agents.
The collective NBC protection system of the tank consists of the following:
The PRKhR-M detector is intended for continuous checking, detection, warning and control of the actuating mechanisms of the protection devices:
The filtering-and-ventilating unit is intended to clean the outside air of toxic agents, radioactive dust and biological aerosols, to supply purified air into the crew compartment, to create overpressure in the crew compartment, and to ventilate the crew compartment in order to remove fire suppressing agents after suppressing a fire.
The fire suppression system is an automatic fire/explosion suppression system and meets the modern requirements.
The fire suppression system is intended to detect and suppress fires, to prevent the fuel/oil mixture from exploding due to action of the high energy jet in the crew and power pack compartments; to give commands for switching on ventilation, to remove pirolysis products out of the crew compartment so that the crew members will not get intoxicated by toxic agents.
This ystem differs from other systems in having a quick response in detecting and eliminating fires, a high reliability, simplicity and ease of maintenance.
The system can be activated as follows:
The system can be activated twice before recharging.
|Parameter description||Parameter value|
|Before modernisation||After modernisation|
|Combat weight (t)||36||48|
|Power-to-weight ratio (hp/t)||6.1||17.7|
|Hull length (mm)||6200||6858|
|Vehicle movement speeds (km/h)|
|Calculated speed (at nominal crankshaft rotation speed)|
|(in 1st gear)||6.85||8.5|
|(in 2nd gear)||14.66||15.8|
|(in 3rd gear)||20.21||24.9|
|(in 4th gear)||28.99||34.2|
|(in 5th gear)||45.48||47.2|
|(in 6th gear)||-||69.3|
|(in reverse gear)||6.85||4.8|
|(in IR gear)||-||10.7|
|(in IIR gear)||-||19.9|
|(in IIIR gear)||-||31.4|
|(on natural soil road)||22 - 27||30 - 35|
|(on highway)||32 - 35||40 - 45|
|Maximum speed on highway||50||70|
|Fuel consumption per 100 km (lt)|
|(on natural soil road)||300 - 330||300 - 330|
|(on highway)||190 - 210||190 - 210|
|Cruising range (km)|
|(on natural soil road)||290 - 320||at least 320|
|(on highway)||485 - 500||at least 500|
|Ambient air temperatures admissible for tank operation (degrees Centigrade)||±40||-40 to 55|
|Deep fording without preparation (m)||1.4||1.8|
|Deep fording with preparation (installation of the tank deep fording equipment) (m)||-||5|
|Model and type||V-55, four-stroke one-chamber liquid-cooled diesel||5TDFM, two-stroke liquid-cooled multi-fuel diesel with boxing pistons, with supercharging|
|Maximum power output (hp)||580||850|
|Crankshaft rotation speed at maximum power output (rpm)||2000||2800|
|Specific fuel consumption (g/hp-h)||190+5||≤160+10|
|Oil used||MT-16P||GALOL M-4042TD|
|Oil tank capacity (lt)||60||110|
|External oil tank capacity (lt)||35||-|
|Oil filters||MAF with two oil cleaning sections and MTs-1 centrifugal oil cleaner||Centrifugal oil filter|
|Type||Liquid-type, closed, forced, under pressure, with centrifugal fan to create cooling air flow through the radiators||Liquid-type, closed, forced, under pressure, with ejector to create cooling air flow through the radiators|
|Engine start system|
|Main system||Start by means of air by using 2 compressed air bottles with pressure of at least 70 kgf/cm2||Electrical start by means of SG-18 starter by using 4 storage batteries|
|Combined||-||Joint operation of air-start and electrical-start systems|
|Back-up||Electrical by means of starter by using 4 storage batteries||Start by means of air by using 2 compressed air bottles with pressure of at least 70 kgf/cm2|
|Engine start facilitating devices||Nozzle-type heater with manual and electrical drives||Heater to warm up the coolant and engine oil, self-contained torch-type air heater, oil dosed injection system (to inject oil into cylinders before engine starting)|
|Engine operational data|
|Coolant temperature (degrees Centigrade)|
|recommended||70 - 90||80 - 115|
|Oil temperature (degrees Centigrade)|
|recommended||70 - 90||80 - 115|
|Crankshaft rotation speed (rpm)|
|operational||1600 - 1800||1600 - 2800|
|maximum (for short periods of time)||2000||3400|
|Oil pressure in the operational range of crankshaft rotation speed (kgf/cm2)||6 - 10||min 1.5|
|Change-gear train||Increasing gear-type reducer||-|
|Gearbox||With permanent engagement of teeth of gears with synchronizers in 3rd, 4th and 5th gears||Mechanical planetary with hydraulic control|
|Number of gears|
|rear||1||1 + 3|
|Oil used||MT16p||MT8p or TS3p8|