The T-55AGM tank is a version of modernisation of T-54, T-55, T-59 and T-62 tanks.

In order to enhance all its main combat, technical and operational characteristics, it is fitted with the following:

  • Power pack with 5TDFM engine
  • Improved running gear
  • Automated movement control system with a steering handlebar control
  • Additional passive protection, built-in explosive reactive armour, optronic countermeasures system, and new fire suppression system
  • Up-to-date fire control system with over-ride facilities at the commander's station
  • Automatic loader
  • Anti-aircraft machine gun that can be aimed and fired from within the turret under complete armour protection
  • New gun (its calibre can be 125 mm or 120 mm according to Customer's request).


Modernizations are subjected to:

  • Armament
  • Fire control system
  • Increased mobility
  • protection
Armament

In order to increase the firepower of the T-55AGM tank, modernisation of the fighting compartment is offered. The modernisation consists in installation of a 125 mm KBM1 smoothbore gun or 120 mm KBM2 smoothbore gun, coaxial machine gun, and automatic loader located in an armoured compartment in the turret bustle.

The offered 120 mm smoothbore gun (KBM2) is a re-designed KBM1 gun and meets the requirements of NATO standards.

Use of enhanced performance conventional ammunition and barrel-launched guided missiles makes it possible to defeat modern tanks by means of armour-piercing projectiles at distances of 2000-3000 m and by means of guided missiles at distances of up to 5,000 m.

Gun

Model KBM1 KBM2
Calibre, mm 125 120
Weight, kg 2500 2600
Barrel length, mm 6000 mm (48 calibres) 6000 mm (50 calibres)
Type Smoothbore
Normal recoil length, mm 260...300
Maximum recoil length (STOP), mm 310
Number of brakes of recoil parts Two
Arrangement of brakes of recoiling parts Symmetrical relative to the axis of the barrel bore
Number of rollers One
Loading Automatic, semi-automatic, manual
Ammunition types APFSDS, HEAT, HE-FRAG All types of ammunition that meet the requirements of NATO standards, Ukrainian-made guided missile
Number of rounds At least 30 (18 in automatic loader)

Coaxial machine gun

Parameter Value
Model KT-7,62 or PKT-7,62
Calibre, mm 7,62
Location On the right of the main gun

Anti-aircraft machine gun

Anti-aircraft machine gun system that can be fired from within the turret under complete armour protectionThe anti-aircraft machine gun system is installed on the commander's cupola and is intended to fire at air and ground targets.

Parameter Value
Model KT-12,7 or NSVT-12,7
Calibre, mm 12,7
Rate of fire, rounds/min 700
Ammunition 450 (150х3)
Controls remote
Firing conditions stationary or moving
Accurate firing distance, m
by day up to 2000
by night up to 800
Aiming range, deg
elevation -5...+70
azimuth ±85
Control remote anti-aircraft machine gun system automatic, stabilised in the vertical axis control mode (by using the TKN-5 sight), semi-automatic (by using the PZU-7 sight)

Automatic loader

Automatic loader is an electric-and-mechanical complex of units with digital control system and is intended to load the gun with any available type of ammunition from the automated ammo storage (conveyor) of the automatic loader. The automatic loader is located in an armoured compartment in the turret bustle.

Components of the automatic loader:

  • chain-type conveyor (for storing and moving rounds to the loading line)
  • gun lock (for locking the main gun at the loading angle)
  • ramming mechanism (for ramming rounds into the main gun)
  • feed tray (for providing support for rounds when they are rammed)
  • cartridge case stub removal mechanism (for catching the cartridge case stub after shot and removing it out of the fighting compartment of the tank)
  • automatic loader compartment lifting mechanism
  • automatic loader control system
  • automatic loader compartment.
Parameter Value
Operating modes Automatic, semi-automatic (step-by-step), emergency (manual)
Number of rounds in the automatic loader 18
Duration of one loading cycle in the automatic mode, s 6,5...7

Installation of the automatic loader in the T-55AGM tank results in the following:

  • reduction in the size of crew down to three
  • increase of the rate of fire up to 8 rds/min
  • improvement of the turret crew comfort due to automatic removal of spent cartridge cases out of the tank
  • loading the main gun without the need to stop the tank. This makes it possible to deliver aimed fire on the move (in so doing, rate of fire does not depend on the terrain or crew fatigue).

The T-55AGM tank can be fitted with an automatic loader either for 125 mm rounds or 120 mm rounds (NATO standard) with interchangeability being ensured.

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Weapon-and-fire control system

Up-to-date fire control system with over-ride facilities at the commander's station

The upgraded T-55AGM tank is fitted with an up-to-date weapon-and-fire control system, which enables the gunner and the commander to deliver fire at stationary and moving targets while the tank is stationary or moving, with a high first round hit probability.

The weapon-and-fire control system comprises gunner's 1K14 day/night sight, PTT-M thermal imaging sight with MATIS thermal camera developed by the SAGEM company, commander's PNK-4S observation and sighting system, PZU-7 anti-aitcraft sight, 1Ets29M anti-aircraft machine gun control system, LIO-V ballistic computer with input sensors, 2E42 armament stabiliser, and other devices.

The gunner's 1K14 day/night sight is provided with a two-axis stabilised line-of-sight, a built-in laser range-finder and a missile guidance capability (laser channel). The sight is also provided with an automatic compensation for gyro drift. The sight field-of-view has a magnification of x10.

The built-in laser range-finder makes it possible to measure target ranges up to 9990 m with accuracy of 10 metres. The measured range is displayed, together with ready-to-fire light and loaded ammunition type indication, in the lower part of the gunner's sight field-of-view.

The PTT-M thermal imaging sight consists of a gunner's optronic instrument, monitor and commander's control panel. The thermal imaging sight enables the gunner and the commander to detect targets and deliver fire (commander - in the override mode) at targets under almost all weather conditions at high distances and with a high accuracy (this ability is a big advantage when operating under conditions of poor visibility or at night). The thermal imaging sight also makes it possible to disregard a number of common obscurants, such as smoke, battlefield light bursts, etc.

The commander's PNK-4S observation and sighting system comprises a commander's TKN-4S combined day/night sight and a gun position sensor. The commander's TKN-4S combined sight is provided with a vertically-stabilised line-of-sight and three channels: unity vision day channel, magnified day channel with a degree of magnification of x7.6 and night channel with a degree of magnification of x5.8.

The anti-aircraft sight enables the commander to fire at air targets from the anti-aircraft machine gun from within the turret under complete armour protection.

The LIO-V ballistic computer is intended for computation of ballistic corrections. The computer automatically allows for the signals coming from the following sensors:

  • tank speed sensor
  • target angular speed sensor
  • gun trunnion axis tilt sensor
  • crosswind sensor
  • target range sensor, and course angle sensor.

Additionally, the following parameters are manually input for calculations:

  • ambient air temperature
  • charge temperature
  • gun barrel wear
  • ambient airpressure, etc.

Turret traverse is electric while gun elevation is hydraulic. Gun and turret manual controls are provided for emergency use.

The specific feature of the tank consists in availability of guided weapon system, which makes it possible to fire laser beam-riding guided missiles from the main gun and engage targets at distances of up to 5,000 m with a hit probability of at least 0.8. The guided weapon system also enables the tank crew to engage hovering helicopters that can fire at tanks from a distance exceeding the maximum firing range of conventional tank ammunition.

Guided missile can be fired from the moving tank at a moving target. The missile is provided with a tandem warhead to defeat targets protected by explosive reactive armour or modern composite armour with enhanced protection ability against chemical energy ammunition.

Machine gun can be fired either from the gunner's station or the commander's station.

The offered modernisation ensures the following:

For the gunner:

  • increase of effective fire range by day and at night of up to 2,400-2,600 m while the tank is stationary or on the move;
  • increase of target detection range at night up to 8,000 m due to installation of PTT-M thermal imaging sight;
  • reduction of the first shot preparation time down to 5-8 seconds;
  • target ranging by day of up to 5,000 m with probability of 0.9 de to use of a laser range-finder provided with an amplitude-time selection capability;
  • firing a guided missile at distances of up to 5,000 m with a target hit probability of 0.8.

For the gunner:

  • firing the main gun in the over-ride mode on the move by using the TKN-4S sight at targets at distances of up to 1,700 m and firing the coaxial macjhine gun at targets at distances of up to 1,800 m;
  • firing in the over-ride mode by using the thermal imaging sight monitor at distances of up to 2,400-2,600 m;
  • firing the anti-aircraft machine gun on the move from within the turret under complete armour protection at distances of up to 2,000 m at ground targets and low-flying air targets;
  • increase of target detection range:
    • by day - up to 5,000 m;
    • at night - up to 700 m (by using TKN-4S sight); 8,000 m (by using PTT-M thermal imaging sight);
  • high-accuracy target designation to the gunner.

The upgraded T-55AGM tank is fitted with communications means, which include

  • an ultra-short wave R-173M radio set
  • crew intercom system.
Parameter Value
Radio set ultra-short wave, receiving/transmitting
Model R-173M
Working frequency range (kHz) 30,000-75,999 with interval of 1 kHz
Number of pre-selected frequencies 10
Radio coverage in cross-country on interference-free frequencies by using a 3-metre whip aerial (km) 20
Crew intercom system
Model AVSK-1
Number of parties 4 (including tank-borne infantry telephone socket)
Crewmember helmet ShSh-1
Number 4
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Mobility increase

Power pack with 5TDFM engine

The power pack that is offered for installation in the upgraded tanks, is based on the 5TDFM engine developing 850 hp. This power pack is designed and made as a separate module that is to be welded instead of the cut-out rear part of the hull.

The engine is a two-stroke multi-fuel diesel with direct flow scavenging, liquid-type cooling, horizontal cylinders and boxing pistons. The engine can burn various types of fuel including diesel fuel, petrol, kerosene, jet engine fuel or their mixture in any proportion.

Power is taken from both sides of the crankshaft. The engine is mounted by means of two cylindrical supports (which are coaxial with the power take-off shaft and are located at the ends of the engine) and a front support (which is located on the lower surface of the engine). This way of engine mounting requires no adjustment nor centering when installing the engine in the power pack (while both adjustment and centering are required in the standard version of the tank).

The main distinctive features of the power pack with 5TDFM engine include the following:

  • ejector-type cooling system
  • high-efficiency air cleaning system of the engine
  • special air inlet device enabling the tank to ford to a water depth of 1.8 m and high air/water tightness of the power pack compartment.

The cooling system is of liquid type, closed, forced, ejector-type. The ejector of the cooling system is operated by using the engine exhaust gas. Absence of a fan and drive reducer made it possible to considerably decrease the weight of the cooling system as well as ensuring a high level of reliability and self-control and enabling the tank to operate at high ambient temperatures without any degradation of performance.

The high-efficiency cyclone-cassette air cleaner provides purification of air from dust up to 99.8 %.

The modernisation results in the following:

  • increase of average speed on natural soil road of up to 22%
  • ability to operate at ambient air temperatures of up to + 55 degrees Centigrade
  • ability to operate under dust conditions for 35 hours or 1000 km without the need for air cleaner cassette maintenance
  • ability to ford to a water depth of 1.8 m without preparation.

Technical characteristics of the 2-stroke 5TDFM engine

Parameter Value
Engine type Multi-fuel engine with supercharging, with boxing pistons, liquid cooled
Maximum power output (kW / hp) 625 / 850
Number of cylinders 5
Placement of cylinders horizontal
Working volume (lt) 13.6
Specific fuel consumption (g/kW / g/hp-h) 218+14 / 160+10
Crankshaft rotation speed at maximum power output (rpm) 2800
Maximum torque (kg·m) 202
Crankshaft rotation speed at maximum torque (rpm) 2050
Weight(kg) 1080+30
Overall dimensions (mm)
length 1830
width 955
height 581

The tank is fitted with a specific multiple reverse speed transmission and a vehicle movement control system, which have the following design peculiarities (if compared with the original T-55 tank):

  • transmission consists of two side planetary gearboxes (with six forward gears and one reverse gear, with friction-type switching-on and hydraulic control) and multiple reverse speed final drives (coaxial with the gearbox). The final drives provide additional three reverse gears and consist of two planetary rows with transmission ratio і=4.8 for forward movement and і=3.8 for reverse movement
  • electrical mechanical hydraulic vehicle movement control system ensures automated gear shifting and steering by means of a steering handlebar control.

The above-mentioned peculiarities made it possible to enhance the mobility and steering performance of the T-55AGM in comparison with the original T-55 tank as follows:

  • maximum forward speed on hard surface road increased up to 70 km/h instead of original 50 km/h (на 40%)
  • 3 additional reverse gears made it possible to increase the reverse speed up to 30 km/h instead of the original 6 km/h (by 5 times)
  • in distinction from the T-55 tank, which provides a minimum turning radius in 1th gear only around the braked track, the T-55AGM tank movement control system makes it possible either to turn around the braked track or to pivot (depending on the value of shifting the steering control).

Running gear

Modernisation of the T-55 tank running gear made it possible to increase its mobility by means of increasing the average speeds of movement in cross-country. This was achieved by fitting the tank with more powerful hydraulic shock absorbers and improved torsion bars.

In order to decrease the vibrations of the track when moving cross-country at higher speeds, the tank is fitted with track support rollers.

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Protection

Additional protection package for T-55AGM tank

The additional protection package is intended to increase the level of protection of the tank against chemical energy attack as well as kinetic energy attack (APFSDS) with the minimum possible increase of tank weight.

The additional protection package consists of passive armour protection and explosive reactive armour.

The tank hull nose is fitted with a removable module. The hull sides are fitted with armoured skirting plates as well as rubberised fabric skirts.

The outer perimeter of the front and side parts of the turret is fitted with module sections while the turret roof is fitted with containers of the explosive reactive armour array.

Each section and each container contain explosive components of explosive reactive armour of new generation, designated Nozh.

The protective action of the explosive reactive armour against a chemical energy attack consists in destruction, crushing and changing the direction of the high-energy jet due to action of the explosive reactive armour fragments and products of detonation of the explosive that is stored inside the explosive reactive armour component and is initiated by the high-energy jet.

The protective action of the explosive reactive armour against a kinetic energy attack projectile consists in destruction of the projectile body and changing of the direction of its penetration due to action of the products of detonation of the explosive that is stored inside the explosive reactive armour component and is initiated by the kinetic energy of the projectile.

Installation of the explosive reactive armour increases the level of protection of the T-55AGM tank as follows:

  • against chemical energy attack - by a factor of 2.3-2.6;
  • against kinetic energy attack - by a factor of 3.5-4.3.

The explosive reactive armour components do not detonate when hit by small arms bullets (7.62 mm and 12.7 mm in calibre) or automatic cannon rounds (up to 30 mm in calibre). Nor do they detonate when exposed to action of incendiary substances of Napalm type or destructive effects of volumetric explosions.

Vehicle signature reduction means

Dazzle coating of the external surfaces of the tank makes it less liable to be detected in the visible and near-infrared ranges of spectre when the enemy is observing the terrain through optical devices, image intensification night vision devices or low-level television cameras.

The thermal insulation of the power pack compartment top deck makes the tank less liable to be detected by enemy thermal imaging systems or to be sensed by homing warheads of missiles (projectiles, mines) which find targets by using thermal contrast.

Aerosol screen laying system

In order to increase the protection of the T-55AGM tank, it is offered to fit it with an aerosol screen laying system.

The aerosol screen laying system is intended to decoy away anti-tank guided missiles that use semi-active laser-based homing warheads, as well as to create interference to artillery systems fitted with laser range-finders, by means of detecting laser irradiation, determining its direction and laying quick-to-generate aerosol screens.

Main combat and technical characteristics

Parameter Value
System power supply voltage (V) 27
Readiness time (s) 1
Continuos operation time unlimited
System operating modes
  • automatic
  • semi-automatic
  • manual
  • target designation mode
Response time of the system in the automatic mode (s) less than 0.5
Arc of protection
360° - with turret traverse
±45° - without turret traverse
Number of grenade launchers 12
Calibre (mm) 81
Elevation angle relative to horizontal plane (degrees) 12

Collective NBC protection system of the T-55AGM tank

The collective NBC protection system ensures protection of the crew and internal equipment against the effects of nuclear explosions, radioactive and toxic agents, as well as bacteriological agents.

The collective NBC protection system of the tank consists of the following:

  • PRKhR-M radiation and chemical agent detector;
  • FVU filtering-and-ventilating unit.

The PRKhR-M detector is intended for continuous checking, detection, warning and control of the actuating mechanisms of the protection devices:

  • in case of powerful gamma-irradiation (nuclear explosion);
  • in case of gamma-irradiation of radioactively contaminated terrain (with measuring the intensity of gamma-irradiation);
  • in case of availability of enemy's toxic agents in the ambient air.

The filtering-and-ventilating unit is intended to clean the outside air of toxic agents, radioactive dust and biological aerosols, to supply purified air into the crew compartment, to create overpressure in the crew compartment, and to ventilate the crew compartment in order to remove fire suppressing agents after suppressing a fire.

Fire suppression system

The fire suppression system is an automatic fire/explosion suppression system and meets the modern requirements.

The fire suppression system is intended to detect and suppress fires, to prevent the fuel/oil mixture from exploding due to action of the high energy jet in the crew and power pack compartments; to give commands for switching on ventilation, to remove pirolysis products out of the crew compartment so that the crew members will not get intoxicated by toxic agents.

This ystem differs from other systems in having a quick response in detecting and eliminating fires, a high reliability, simplicity and ease of maintenance.

The system can be activated as follows:

  • automatically (when the vehicle mains is switched on);
  • manually - by using the CR.C (crew compartment) button and EC (engine compartment) button which correspond to the relevant compartments.

Response time:

  • in the crew compartment - within 0.15 s
  • in the power pack compartment - within 10 s.

The system can be activated twice before recharging.

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Changes in technical characteristics of the T-55 tank as a result of modernization
Parameter description Parameter value
Before modernisation After modernisation
General
Combat weight (t) 36 48
Power-to-weight ratio (hp/t) 6.1 17.7
Hull length (mm) 6200 6858
Vehicle movement speeds (km/h)
Calculated speed (at nominal crankshaft rotation speed)
(in 1st gear) 6.85 8.5
(in 2nd gear) 14.66 15.8
(in 3rd gear) 20.21 24.9
(in 4th gear) 28.99 34.2
(in 5th gear) 45.48 47.2
(in 6th gear) - 69.3
(in reverse gear) 6.85 4.8
(in IR gear) - 10.7
(in IIR gear) - 19.9
(in IIIR gear) - 31.4
Average speed
(on natural soil road) 22 - 27 30 - 35
(on highway) 32 - 35 40 - 45
Maximum speed on highway 50 70
Operational data
Fuel consumption per 100 km (lt)
(on natural soil road) 300 - 330 300 - 330
(on highway) 190 - 210 190 - 210
Cruising range (km)
(on natural soil road) 290 - 320 at least 320
(on highway) 485 - 500 at least 500
Ambient air temperatures admissible for tank operation (degrees Centigrade) ±40 -40 to 55
Deep fording without preparation (m) 1.4 1.8
Deep fording with preparation (installation of the tank deep fording equipment) (m) - 5
Engine
Model and type V-55, four-stroke one-chamber liquid-cooled diesel 5TDFM, two-stroke liquid-cooled multi-fuel diesel with boxing pistons, with supercharging
Maximum power output (hp) 580 850
Crankshaft rotation speed at maximum power output (rpm) 2000 2800
Specific fuel consumption (g/hp-h) 190+5 ≤160+10
Weight (kg) ≤920 1080+30
Lubrication system
Oil used MT-16P GALOL M-4042TD
Oil tank capacity (lt) 60 110
External oil tank capacity (lt) 35 -
Oil filters MAF with two oil cleaning sections and MTs-1 centrifugal oil cleaner Centrifugal oil filter
Cooling system
Type Liquid-type, closed, forced, under pressure, with centrifugal fan to create cooling air flow through the radiators Liquid-type, closed, forced, under pressure, with ejector to create cooling air flow through the radiators
Engine start system
Main system Start by means of air by using 2 compressed air bottles with pressure of at least 70 kgf/cm2 Electrical start by means of SG-18 starter by using 4 storage batteries
Combined - Joint operation of air-start and electrical-start systems
Back-up Electrical by means of starter by using 4 storage batteries Start by means of air by using 2 compressed air bottles with pressure of at least 70 kgf/cm2
Engine start facilitating devices Nozzle-type heater with manual and electrical drives Heater to warm up the coolant and engine oil, self-contained torch-type air heater, oil dosed injection system (to inject oil into cylinders before engine starting)
Engine operational data
Coolant temperature (degrees Centigrade)
recommended 70 - 90 80 - 115
maximum 105 130
Oil temperature (degrees Centigrade)
recommended 70 - 90 80 - 115
maximum 110 130
Crankshaft rotation speed (rpm)
operational 1600 - 1800 1600 - 2800
maximum (for short periods of time) 2000 3400
Oil pressure in the operational range of crankshaft rotation speed (kgf/cm2) 6 - 10 min 1.5
Power transmission
Change-gear train Increasing gear-type reducer -
Gearbox With permanent engagement of teeth of gears with synchronizers in 3rd, 4th and 5th gears Mechanical planetary with hydraulic control
Number of gears
forward 5 7
rear 1 1 + 3
Oil used MT16p MT8p or TS3p8
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