State Enterprise "Kharkov Machine Building Design Bureau" (SE "KMDB") named after A.A.Morozov, having started it's way as a small group of designers of the technical office of the Kharkiv locomotive plant, allocated for the development of a maneuverable tank, in the period from 1927 to the present time has turned into one of the world's leading firms in the development and modernization of the main battle tanks and engineering caterpillar vehicles.
In the first years of existence, the USSR did not have its tank industry. The production and repair of tank equipment was carried out at various engineering plants of the country from time to time. At the same time, ensuring the country's defense required the equipment of the Red Army with military equipment, including armored vehicles.
An important event in the development of the national tank building was the creation on 6 May 1924 in Moscow, in the system of the Chief Directorate of the Military Industry, of a tank bureau, which in 1926-1929 was referred to as the "Chief Design Bureau of the Weaponry and Arsenal Trust (GKB OAT)". The bureau was entrusted with the task of designing combat tracked vehicles and assisting plants in mastering their production. The lack of a production base and necessary equipment in the SCB OAT complicated and complicated the work of this organization.
In connection with this, several machine-building plants, including the Kharkiv Locomotive Building Plant named after the Comintern, were entrusted with organizing works on tank building, and later on the development of designs for domestic tanks. This decision was facilitated by the presence on KhPZ of the organized since 1923 production of powerful caterpillar tractors Kommunar, which was a good production base for development at the tank building plant.
The official document that determines the beginning of work on the production of tanks at the plant is the Permanent Mobs Council Decree of December 1, 1927, when the General Directorate of the Metal Industry (Letter No. 1159/128 of January 7, 1928) instructed "... to urgently study the question On the production of tanks and tractors at the KPZ ... "(from the materials of the Kharkov regional State Archives, case No. 93, sheet 5).
Actually the history of the KMDB begins in December 1927, when a new team was created at the KPK from among the designers of the tractor production - the tank design group. The first head of this group was a young engineer-designer Ivan Nikanorovich Alexenko.
One of the first tasks of this group was to participate in the design of the tank with the designation 1-12-32 in conjunction with the SCB OAT, providing the plant with design documentation, participating in the preparation of tank production at the plant.
With the increase in the volume of design work in early 1928, the director of the plant approved additional vacancies to the staff schedule of the tank design team for 8 people.
In the autumn of 1928, a government order was ordered by the KhPZ for the production of a prototype of a "maneuverable" tank (1-12-32) developed by the State Security Committee of the OAT.
The maneuverable tank, which was given the T-12 brand at the factory, was designed with a double tower. A small tower with machine-gun weapons was mounted on a large tower and had an independent rotation. In the frontal part of the large tower, a 45 mm cannon was installed; To the right of it, and also in the left side of the tower - machine guns (7.62 mm) in ball bearings. In designing the tank, Department of self-propelled machines of the State Security Committee OAT Professor VI Zaslavsky, who later became the first head of the tank department of the Military Academy of Mechanization and Motorization of the Red Army (now the Academy of BTV named after R.Ya. Malinovsky). In the development of the engine-transmission compartment of the tank with the installation of the domestic M-6 engine, the designer of aircraft engines, the future academician AA, participated. Mikulin.
Tank T-12 was manufactured in conditions of almost complete absence of special equipment, hands of qualified specialists of tractor production. Despite the difficulties and lack of experience, the production of the sample was progressing rapidly and was completed by the end of 1929. The factory tests of the T-12 tank began in January, and official tests took place in February 1930.
Since the sample of the T-12 tank performed in comparison with the project turned out to be heavier (20 tons instead of 16 tons) and also had a number of shortcomings, the collective of the tank group (by that time its strength had doubled) urgently began to rework it. Significant processing of the T-12 tank design, taking into account the test results, led to the creation of a new machine design.
In addition to increasing mobility parameters (weight and specific pressure are reduced, engine power and speed are increased), a fourth machine gun is installed in the frontal part of the body, to the left of the driver-mechanic, and an arrow is equipped. Thus, the weapon in the tank was placed in three tiers, which was an innovation in tank building. The new tank was given the T-24 brand.
Техническая контора ХПЗ. 1923 г.
И.Н. Алексенко, руководитель танковой конструкторской группы ХПЗ им. Коминтерна с 1927 по 1930 г.
The T-24 tank is the first combat vehicle fully developed by the forces of the young tank design team of KHPZ. In 1931, the assembly of the first tank began, and in the same year a small series of machines was produced (25 units). Thus, along with the tank production, which was then at the Leningrad plant "Bolshevik", there was another center of tank production in the south of the country - KhPZ im. The Comintern. By this time a special T2 building was built at the plant for the production and assembly of tanks and the independent tank design bureau T2K headed by I.N. Alexenko. The core of this bureau was the designers of a special tank group, established in December 1927, and participated in the development, manufacture and testing of T-12 and T-24 tanks:
The head of tank production was S.N. Makhonin.
Состав КБ по разработке танка Т-24
In 1930, the KhPZ them. The Comintern, as a plant that has already accumulated some experience in the design and manufacture of tanks, received a particularly important task - to begin work on the creation and organization of the production of a special high-speed tank necessary for manning the mechanized formations of the Red Army. To help and strengthen the management of the work on the creation of the first high-speed tank, an experienced military engineer NM Toskin was seconded from the Office of Mechanization and Motorization of the Red Army to the bureau.
The work on the high-speed tank (BT) has outgrown the assumed framework and has turned into a creative process of creating not only new nodes, but also a completely new layout of the machine. Its main constructive feature was the presence of a wheeled-caterpillar propulsion device, which allowed driving on wheels in good road conditions, and on tracks in the absence of roads - on caterpillars. The head of all the works connected with the tank BT, was NM. Toskin. The first tank (it was called OBT - experienced) was assembled in late September 1931. After some minor alterations and debugging of the design, the tank went into the series under the BT-2 brand.
November 7, 1931, the first three serial tanks BT-2 participated in the military parade on Red Square in Moscow.
Since the issue of creating a high-speed tank was solved, NM. Toskin (as a professional military engineer) was recalled to the Mechanization and Motorization Department of the spacecraft to continue his basic service.
December 6, 1931 the head of the tank design bureau was appointed AO. Firsov.
Further work to improve the combat and technical properties of the wheeled-caterpillar tank led in 1933 to the replacement of BT-2 with its modification - the BT-5 tank. Important in this machine was the installation in place of the imported motor "Liberty" of the domestic aircraft engine M-5 designs AA. Mikulina. In addition, the BT-5 was equipped with a more powerful 45mm gun (instead of 37mm on BG-2). On the experimental tank of the 1935 release, a 76.2 mm cannon was installed. This tank was named "artillery" and was intended for fire support of attacking tanks. BT-5 tanks intended for command personnel were produced by equipped radio station 71-TK1 with a handrail antenna on the tower.
In the period 1932-1933, design work was carried out to connect the armored parts of the hull and the tower with the help of electric welding instead of riveted joints. Tank type BT-2 with welded hull and tower had the name BT-4.
Continuing to further improve the tanks of the BT series, the team of designers of KB T2K in 1935 created its next modification - the BT-7 tank. On this tank was installed a more perfect carburetor aircraft engine M-17T and the drivetrain units were radically changed. Some tanks were equipped with anti-aircraft machine guns.
А.О. Фирсов, Руководитель КБ Т2К ХПЗ им. Коминтерна с 1931 по 1936 г.
In the second half of 1936 the KhPZ them. The Comintern was renamed into Plant No. 183. Inside the plant, digital indexation of services was also introduced, the T2K tank design bureau was assigned the KB-190 index.
On December 28, 1936, by order of the People's Commissar of Heavy Industry, G.K. Ordzhonikidze Chief Designer of the tank design bureau of the plant number 183 was appointed MI. Koshkin, in return accused in the unfit construction of the checkpoint and the repressed AO. Firsov, although the mass failure of this node was caused by improper operation and "enthusiasm" of jumping on BT tanks. Under the leadership of M.I. Koshkina upgraded the BT-7 tank with the installation of a diesel engine, V-2, created by that time at the plant. It was the first tank in the world to have a diesel engine. The BT-7 tank with a diesel engine was given the name A-8 according to the drawing-technical documentation of the plant, and went to the army under the brand BT-7M.
In a small amount, a tank was produced with a cannon of increased caliber (76.2 mm). He was given the brand BT-7A, he was intended to enhance the firepower of the tank units.
In parallel with tanks of the BT type, at the plant No. 183, heavy five-tower T-35 tanks were produced in a very small amount, designed by the design bureau of the Leningrad Experimental Plant. CM. Kirov. To maintain serial production and improve the design of this tank, there was a separate KB-35 design bureau at the plant, headed by I.S. Ber.
М.И. Кошкин, Главный конструктор танкового КБ завода 183 с 1936 по 1940 г.
Испытания БТ-7. Преодоление рва
In October 1937, plant No. 183 received an assignment from the Auto Armored Directorate of the Red Army to develop a new maneuverable wheeled-tracked tank. To carry out this serious task, M.I. Koshkin organized a new division - KB-24. Constructors in this design bureau he picked personally, on a voluntary basis from the number of KB-190 and KB-35 employees. The number of this KB was 21 people:
Design Bureau KB-190, headed by N.A. Kucherenko, continued work on upgrading the BT-7 tank and finalizing the design documentation for the BT-7M and BT-7A tanks.
The new KB-24 designed in less than a year a wheeled-caterpillar tank, which was given the A-20 index. It was carried out in strict accordance with the technical task of the customer - the Auto Armored Directorate of the Red Army. From BT-7Mtank A-20 was distinguished first of all by a new shape of the hull, for the first time in tank building the location of armor plates at an angle was applied. Subsequently, such a principle of armor protection became classical, widely used in tanks of all countries. A-20 was also distinguished by a new drive to the driving wheels, three of the four rollers (on board) were leading.
A small gap in the TTX of the A-20 tank compared to the BT-7M was the reason for the creation in KB-24 of an "initiative" tank, named T-32. Its essential difference was the replacement of the wheeled-caterpillar propeller by a simpler, purely caterpillar drive. The abolition of the wheel-travel on the T-32 allowed not only to significantly simplify the design of the tank, but also to strengthen the armor protection due to the weight saved. On this sample, a more powerful 76mm gun was installed.
At the Main Military Council in August 1938, where the results of the assignment of the ABTU RKKA task were considered, M.I. Koshkin managed to get permission to make in the metal along with the wheeled-caterpillar tank A-20 and a pure caterpillar T-32.
By mid-1939, prototype A-20 and T-32 tanks were manufactured and submitted to the State Commission for testing. The Commission noted that both tanks "are stronger and stronger than all prototypes produced earlier," but none of them was given preference.
The carried out secondary tests of the A-20 and T-32 experienced tanks in the autumn of 1939, and most importantly the hostilities that took place at that time in Finland, clearly confirmed that tactical mobility in conditions of rough terrain, especially in the autumn-winter period, can be provided only by tracked vehicles cars. At the same time, the need was identified for further improving the combat parameters of the T-32 tank and, in particular, strengthening its defense.
In the shortest possible time, the design bureau completed the upgrading of the T-32 tank by further strengthening the armored protection, arming and carrying out a number of other constructive changes. As a result of this work, a sample tank was created, which was named T-34 and later became the main tank of the Soviet Army during the Great Patriotic War.
In connection with the dramatically increased volume of design work for the development of the T-32 tank and the production of technical drawings for the T-34 prototypes, and in connection with the discontinuation of the production of the T-35 tanks, in 1939 the three tanks KB (KB-24, KB-190, KB-35) into one tank design bureau, to which the cipher was assigned - department 520. The main designer of the joint design bureau was M.I. Koshkin, head of the design bureau and deputy chief designer - AA. Morozov, deputy head of the design bureau - NA. Kucherenko.
Испытания БТ-7М. Преодоление заболоченного участка
Испытания Т-35 под г. Харьков
The T-34 tank was adopted by the Government Decree on December 19, 1939, before the production of prototypes. The first experimental tanks were manufactured in January 1940 and when tested fully confirmed the high technical and combat qualities.
In March 1940, two T-34 tanks made a run to Moscow and back, showing at the same time a high reliability of all the units. In this run, M.I. Koshkin.
Serial production of T-34 tanks began in June 1940, and by the end of the year 115 vehicles were produced.
In June 1940, the government decided to deploy T-34 tanks at other major enterprises in the country. In connection with this design bureau of plant No. 183, complete sets of drawings and technical documentation for the T-34 tank were urgently manufactured and sent in the required quantities to the Stalingrad Tractor and Sormovo Shipyards.
The beginning of the serial production of T-34 tanks, which was the final stage of the three-year hard work of the designers and the entire factory team, almost coincided with a heavy loss. After a long illness on September 26, 1940, M.I. Koshkin. His premature death was a heavy loss for the team of designers and the plant. The main designer of the tank design bureau was the disciple and associate M.I. Koshkina - A.A. Morozov.
By the end of 1940, despite the great load on the completion of the T-34 tank, KB began work on its modernization. On the modernized model, which was provisionally assigned with the T-34M index, it was planned to significantly strengthen the armor protection of the hull and tower, use torsion shafts instead of springs and rollers with internal damping, increase the amount of fuel, shells, cartridges, etc. in the suspension. Drafting technical documentation T-34M tank was completely released and issued to production for the production of a prototype. The Zhdanov Metallurgical Plant manufactured armor plates of the tank body of the T-34M (five sets) and was sent to the plant No. 183. However, at the beginning of 1941, in connection with the sharply increased workload of production, the production of the T-34 serial tanks was practically stopped on the T-34M tank.
In 1941, the tank design bureau of the plant No. 183 (department 520) consisted of 106 people (12 engineering groups), headed by Chief Designer A.A. Morozov and his two deputies-NA. Kucherenko and A.V. Kolesnikov.
Испытания первого Т-34 на Карельском перешейке. 1940 г.
Танки А-8, А-20, Т-34 (обр. 1940г.), Т-34 (обр. 1941г.)
Забрасывание на моторный люк танка бутылок с горящим бензином
On the basis of the governmental Decree No. 667 / SGCO of September 12, 1941, the director of the plant Yu.E. Maksarev ordered the factory to wind down and immediately evacuate it to a deep rear. The first echelon left the factory on September 19, 1941 and headed to Uralvagonzavod in Nizhny Tagil, Sverdlovsk region. He took away the designers of the tank design bureau, the technical drawings of the tank and the most valuable equipment.
Evacuated to Nizhny Tagil, the Kharkov plant and the local Uralvagonzavod were merged into one enterprise, which became known as the Ural Tank Plant No. 183. At this plant, the numbering of workshops and departments was retained, which was adopted even before the war in Kharkov. The Tank Design Bureau was still called "Division 520". The main designer, as in Kharkov, was AA. Morozov.
December 8, 1941 Ural Tank Plant was released the first T-34 tank, and in April 1942 the plant surpassed the prewar level of production of these military vehicles.
The military situation and loss for various reasons of many factories supplying component parts and materials created enormous difficulties in the conditions of a continuous increase in the production of tanks. There was not enough rubber, non-ferrous metals, electrical equipment, etc.
In order not to stop the production of tanks, the design bureau announced the mobilization of all forces for the struggle for the economy of non-ferrous metals, rubber, armored steel, wires, for further machine engineering. All the details of the tank were reconsidered, the designers used cast iron instead of bronze, replaced the riveting with welding, moved the stamped parts to castings, and canceled the intermediate parts. As a result of this work, the designers succeeded in completely eliminating 765 items, which greatly simplified the process of making the machine and was a significant contribution to the organization of mass production of tanks. Simplicity of design, mass character and high combat characteristics of the T-34 tank created an excellent reputation for it. Subsequently, it was considered the best tank of the Second World War.
КБ в годы войны на Урале, г. Нижний Тагил
Despite the large load of KB on the tank T-34, on the initiative of AA. Morozov in the second half of 1942 began work on the design of a new tank, which was given the conventional name T-43. This project was based on the developments made in Kharkov for the T-34M tank. In addition, the tank provided for:
The design of the tank was carried out quite quickly even by those standards, and already in the third quarter of 1943 the plant produced a prototype of the T-43 tank. The T-43 tank did not go further than the prototype; A large jump in characteristics compared with the T-34 was not obtained, and there were many changes.
In 1943, the new tanks "Tiger" and "Panther" appeared in the arsenal of the Hitlerite army. They had thickened armor, which in most cases did not penetrate the 76-millimeter shells of "thirty-four". Urgent retaliatory measures were needed.
Huge work had to be done by designers to eliminate the superiority of German tanks. In the shortest possible time, the task set by the State Defense Committee was successfully resolved. At the end of 1943, a more powerful 85-mm cannon was installed on the T-34 tank, which almost equalized the firepower of the T-34 with the new German tanks. It was also introduced commander's turret, greatly improved the review from the tank. The tank with the indicated changes received the index T-34-85 and was adopted for service on December 15, 1943. The first samples of the tank T-34-85 began to descend from the conveyor of the Ural Tank Plant in March 1944.
At the end of 1942, in the design bureau parallel with the development of the T-43 tank, which was, as is known, a deep modernization of the T-34, the design of a completely new tank was begun. This tank was designed in three versions: with a cannon of caliber 122, 100 and 85 mm.
In addition to artillery weapons, the tank (later named T-44) was different from the T-34 with the following design features:
The design of the tank was completed by the end of 1943. The prototypes were manufactured in the first half of 1944. The conducted tests of prototypes showed that for a variety of reasons for the T-44 tank guns of increased caliber 122 and 100 mm are unacceptable, and further work on them was discontinued.
The testing and development of the T-44 tank with the 85mm gun, adopted for the T-34-85, continued during 1944 and by the end of the year were successfully completed. A new medium tank was created.
Танки Т-44-122 и T-V "Пантера" на сравнительных испытаниях
Since the mass production of T-34-85 tanks was fine at the Ural Tank Plant and the Great Patriotic War was still going on, it was decided to produce a new T-44 tank at the former factory No. 183, restored to Kharkov after its liberation, to which it was assigned No. 75. The assembly of serial T-44 tanks at this plant was started in June 1945. The first batch of T-44 tanks was sent to the Far East in August 1945, where military operations with Japan took place at that time.
Designers KB-520, along with work on tanks T-34-85 and T-44 began at the end of the war to create a more advanced tank, the design of which was supposed to use the vast experience of operating tanks in combat conditions on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War.
Constructive workings were mainly conducted in the following directions:
Strengthening the firepower of the tank;
Increasing his armor protection;
Ability of the tank to overcome water obstacles on the bottom.
Two prototypes of the new tank, which was given the T-54 mark, were manufactured in the first quarter of 1945, the same year they were tested. Finalization of the drawing and technical documentation on the remarks revealed during the manufacturing and testing of prototypes was completed in early 1946. As the main weapon on this tank, a 100-mm tank gun was used; As an additional weapon - antiaircraft machine gun 12.7mm, three course machine gun 7.62mm and one twin machine gun 7.62mm. Tower of the tank - cast with a thickness of the front part 190 mm. The front sheet of the body had a thickness of 100 mm.
To partially compensate for the increased weight, the diesel engine was equipped with a high-power diesel engine (V-54).
The T-54 tank was put into serial production at the Ural Plant No. 183 in 1947 and at the Kharkov Plant No. 75 in 1948. Thus, the Kharkov Design Bureau (department 520), headed by Chief Designer AA. Morozov, being in the evacuation, created, in addition to the T-34-85 tank, also tanks T-44 and T-54. The evacuation of plant No. 183 and design bureau in Nizhny Tagil made it possible to create another large design bureau and a tank plant in the Urals. After the end of the war and especially after the completion of the work on the creation of the T-54 tank, a gradual return from Nizhny Tagil to Kharkov evacuated in 1941 tanker designers.
The post-war history of the Kharkov Tank Design Bureau essentially begins in 1951, from the moment of the transfer of A.A. Morozov in Kharkov and his appointment as the Chief Designer KB-60M.
In the post-war period, the tank industry of the country supplied the army mainly with a T-54 tank, created as far back as 1947, or its modifications - T-54A, T-54B. The army needed a qualitatively new tank, significantly superior in all respects to both domestic and foreign tanks.
To work on a new tank in the KB-60M, a new design department was created. Headed by the department returned to this time from Nizhny Tagil Ya.I. Baran, who at the same time became the Deputy Chief Designer.
Initiative development of the layout and design of the new tank were completed in 1953. Pre-design project of the tank, which was distinguished by a number of new technical solutions, was considered in higher instances and approved. For the organization of work on the new tank, a directive document was issued - USSR Council of Ministers Resolution No. 598-265 of April 2, 1954.
The outline design of the new tank, which was assigned the "Object-430" cipher, was completed by the end of 1954. The main feature of it was the layout and layout of the engine-transmission compartment - the transverse arrangement of a 4-stroke turbocharged 4-stroke turbo-engine (specially designed for this tank) (developed by the diesel KB of plant No. 75) with two planetary on-board transmissions located on both sides of the engine. This arrangement made it possible to reduce the volume of MTO almost twice as compared with the T-54.
This was explained by the exclusion from the MTO of the traditional central checkpoint, the guitar, the main clutch, two PMPs, etc. In addition, the tank was equipped with an ejection cooling system and a lightweight undercarriage with metal hollow rollers of reduced diameter and rubberized caterpillar.
Simultaneously, the design bureau was proactively drafted on the basis of a new medium-sized tank "Object-430" draft design of the reinforced tank "Object-430U". The tank "430U", in which a 122mm cannon was installed and the armor protection was significantly strengthened (160mm arm shield instead of 120 at the "Object-430"), had in essence characteristics of a heavy tank. According to some parameters (the amount of ammunition, specific power, specific pressure, etc.), the Object-430U, having the internal volume of the hull and the towers of the middle tank, exceeded the characteristics of the then existing heavy IS-3 and IS-4 heavy tanks and an experienced Heavy tank T-10. The weight of the "430U" tank was 42 tons, while the heavy tanks had a weight of about 50 tons (IS-4 - 60 tons).
The completed project showed that in the layout and design of the medium tank there are reserves, which in a much more simple way allow to achieve the parameters of heavy tanks.
The development of the direction developed in the course of the "430U" project later led to a change in the concept of tank building; The division of tanks by weight into medium and heavy was canceled. During 1953-1955, the projects of the new medium tank were twice considered in higher instances and in both cases received a positive evaluation. As a result of consideration of projects and organization of work on the new tank, directive documents were issued: Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of May 6, 1955 No. 880-524 and Order No. 0096 of the Minister of Transport Engineering dated May 13, 1955.
In 1956, taking into account the comments on the draft designs and in accordance with the TTT issued by NTU GBTU (letter No. K / 840012 of June 8, 1955), the design bureau carried out the technical design of the new medium tank "Object 430".
It introduced some constructive changes aimed at improving tactical and technical indicators:
Three prototypes of the "430" tank were manufactured by the V.A. Malysheva in 1957 (Resolution No. 20 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of February 25, 1957, the plant No. 75 was renamed to the Malyshev Plant), and in 1958 comprehensive tests began that were successful and showed good qualities of the tank, especially on constructive Solutions running gear.
Despite the fact that the design of the tank was completely new and the TTT NTK GBTU were fully implemented, it was not possible to significantly close the parameters of the characteristics of the serial T-54 tank. Taking into account that the T-54 tank was also being improved at that time (preparing for the T-55 tank series), Chief Designer of the Design Bureau A.A. Morozov believed that it was not advisable to introduce the "430" tank into mass production, because having a slight advantage in terms of TTX and a completely new design for all systems, the "430" tank would create great inconvenience in the army for operation, repair, training, P. Design Bureau, not having a special task for that, began an initiative work to dramatically increase the average tank's TTX.
Макет для испытания ходовой части на базе танка ОТ-54
The work on the creation of a new medium tank was carried out on the basis of upgrading the "430" tank as having the most dense layout of the engine-transmission compartment and having the main units that have been tested and practically tested in the tank: engine, transmission, control, chassis,
One of the first tasks - a sharp increase in the maneuverability of the machine - was solved by installing a 5TDF engine with a capacity of 700 hp into the tank. (Instead of 580 hp at "430") and a significant reduction in the weight of the tank to 30.5 tons (instead of 36 tons to "430").
At the same time, keeping all the positive qualities of the "430" tank, the design was conducted in the direction of the possibility of obtaining higher tactical and technical properties on the new tank. In order to increase the firepower, the U-5TS gun of 115mm caliber was installed on the tank, and also the charging mechanism, which was used for the first time in the world tank building, the installation of which made it possible to reduce the crew from four to three men (commander, gunner and driver) Volume of combat compartment of the tank.
These design innovations, as well as a number of other (coaxial torsion bars, caterpillar with RMS, a reduction in the height of the hull by 76 mm and tower height by 20 mm, a decrease in the width of the hull) led to the creation of a new maneuverable tank, Object-432. The outline design of this tank was completed in 1960. As a result of consideration and approval of the draft "Object-432" project, the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR No.141-58 of February 17, 1961 was issued on the establishment of the " V.A. Malyshev is a new medium tank.
In 1961, the design bureau in a short time was completed technical design of the tank "object 432". From the outline, he was distinguished primarily by enhanced protection. The growth of the caliber of tank weapons of possible adversaries, the introduction of sub-caliber and cumulative projectiles, as well as the urgent need for biological protection of the crew from nuclear weapons predetermined the direction of a fundamentally new approach to the creation of the protection of a modern tank.
On the tank "432" for the first time in tank building, a complex multi-layer combined protection was created, consisting of armored steel, anti-cumulative jet-extinguishing materials and special anti-radiation materials. A sharp increase in protection led to an increase in the weight of the tank compared to the draft design to 34 tons (instead of 30.5 tons).
As a result of the work carried out by the Design Bureau for the improvement of the 432 tank, a new medium tank "432" was created and put into service, to which the T-64 mark was assigned.
The first serial samples of the T-64 tank went off the assembly line of the plant. V.A. Malysheva in October 1963.
At that time, when the first T-64 machines began to go off the assembly line, the design bureau was already working on the further development of the new tank.
Due to the fact that the T-64 tank had a significant detachment in terms of protection and maneuverability compared to other tanks, in order to maintain a lasting advantage over all existing domestic and foreign tanks, it was decided to significantly increase its firepower.
This was achieved by installing on a tank smooth-bore gun of high ballistic D-81 caliber 125mm.
At the same time, other constructive measures were envisaged:
The tank with the above changes was assigned a code - "Object-434". The technical design of the new tank was completed in 1964, and the design bureau immediately proceeded with the production of working drawings and technical documentation. The prototypes were manufactured in 1966-1967, and after wide-ranging comprehensive tests in May 1968, the tank was adopted by the Soviet Army. The new tank was given the T-64A brand.
T-64A tank was an optimal design, harmoniously combining firepower, reliable comprehensive protection and high maneuverability with the minimum possible weight.
In the T-64A tank, fundamentally new constructive solutions are reflected:
Remaining in the weight of the middle tank, the new tank for armament and defense had the parameters of a heavy tank. Thus, in connection with the creation of the T-64A, the division of tanks into medium and heavy tanks was finally eliminated (which confirmed the correctness of the concept put forward by the design bureau in 1954) and a new concept appeared-the main tank. The T-64A tank became the first main domestic tank.
This event marked the next victory of the domestic tank building, a qualitative leap in comparison with the tanks of the leading tank-building states - a new, third generation of Soviet tanks appeared.
The T-64A tank was created by continuous creative search, successive approximation to the requirements of the time from the first constructive schemes of the new machine (Object-430, 1954) to the first production model (1969). The main designer of the T-64A was AA. Morozov, for the development of this tank he was awarded the Lenin Prize.
The design and layout of the T-64A tank were so successful that many design solutions began to be used in other tank design bombers, on machines of later development, for example the T-72 and T-80.
In 1962, the design bureau entered the factory department 62, which was a SKB for the development of flamethrower tanks, led by F.A. Mostov, who became Deputy Chief Designer. This team developed tanks OT-54, TO-55 and an experienced tank "Product 483". Serial production of these machines by Kharkov documentation was carried out at ZTM (Omsk).
Since January 1, 1966, the tank KB (Division 60) and the experimental tank production workshop (shop 190) by the Order of the Minister of Defense Industry No. 62 of 06.05.65. Were merged into an independent enterprise "Kharkov Design Bureau for Machine Building" (KMDB). The chief and the Chief Designer of KMDB was AA. Morozov.
In connection with the adoption of a government decision on the release of T-64A tanks at three plants - Kharkov them. Malyshev, Leningrad Kirov and Uralvagonzavod - the question arose about the power plant of the tank.
Since the plant them. Malysheva did not have the capacity to produce engines for three plants and the 5TDF engine at that time had many complaints about the resource, the decisions of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR of August 15, 1966. No. 645-205 and from 15.08.67. №802-266 was ordered in 1968-1969 to carry out R & D for developing a reserve version of the "Object-434" with a B-45 engine.
Work on the design of a reserve version of the logistics for the tank "432" in the design bureau was begun as far back as 1961. Two versions with V-shaped four-cycle engines of Chelyabinsk and Barnaul plants were developed. Preference was given to the layout of the logistics with the Chelyabinsk engine V-45 (improved widely known engine B-2). In 1965, three tanks were produced, "432" with the specified engines, which received the name "Object-436". In the years 1966-1967. These tanks have been tested in various regions of Omsk and Leningrad.
Taking into account the results of tests of the 436 tanks, a reserve version of the T-64A tank with a B-45 engine was developed in the design bureau. It was named Object-438, then renamed Object-439.
In 1968, in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine No. 594 of 12.09.67, the design documentation for the production of a prototype tank was issued.
In 1969, in accordance with the Order of MOS № 623 of September 28, 677, four samples of the tank "439" were manufactured and tested.
Successfully passed tests showed that the variant of the T-64A tank with the reserve V-45 engine on mobility characteristics fully corresponds to the basic version of the tank.
On the basis of the developed layout of the power unit of the tank "439" the MTO of the T-72 tank was subsequently carried out.
In the early seventies, the KMDB initiated a number of works in the amount of sketch projects for the deep modernization of the T-64A tank.
The first deputy chief designer Nikolay Aleksandrovich Shomin supervised these works.
The sketch project, made in 1973 (conventional name T-64A-2M), presented quite thoroughly worked out questions of further improvement of the T-64A tank on firepower, protection, mobility. Technical solutions to change the shape of the tower, locate the b / c, install a more powerful engine, etc. were used in the designs of subsequent samples (in particular, in the objects "447" and "476").
On the basis of these works and in execution of the USSR MOP Order No. 339 of 12.08.73, a technical design of the T-64A tank with missile-gun guided weapons (Object-447) was carried out. The new tank was characterized by significant improvements in the fire control system, including the installation of a laser range finder (instead of an optical one), a ballistic computer, input information sensors to account for deviations in shooting conditions from normal ones. A high percentage of unification (95%) allowed the plant to switch to the serial production of the 447 and 437 tanks (variant 447 without installation of guided weapons) with minimal changes in the technological cycle of manufacture and assembly.
Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR of 03.09.76g. No. 733-244 tanks "447" and "437" were adopted by the Soviet Army and appropriated to them respectively T-64B and T-64B1. The efficiency of the T-64B tank increased 1.6 times compared to the T-64A tank.
June 4, 1976 for health reasons А.А. Morozov leaves the post of the head of KMDB. By order of the Minister of Defense Industry, N.A. Shomin, who previously worked as First Deputy Chief Designer.
Attaching great importance to further improving the tactical and technical characteristics of the T-64A and T-64B tanks, the Kharkov Design Bureau together with the Kharkov Design Bureau for engine building in the period 1974-1979. Performed experimental design work to create a motor-transmission plant with a six-cylinder diesel 6TD with a capacity of 1000 hp. In 1978-1979 years. In various climatic conditions, tanks T-64A with a 6TD engine (Object-476) successfully passed interdepartmental tests and confirmed a significant increase in maneuverability of the tank. The 6TD engines in October 1979 were recommended for serial production. The high continuity in the design of the 6TD engine with the mass-produced 5TDF engine ensured the possibility of using the old technology and existing equipment, which allowed the production of a 6TD engine for serial production in a short time. In accordance with the Decree of the Collegium of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR of 09.09.77. And the decisions of the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation of 05.01.78, 26.07.78. And 25.01.79. KMDB developed the drawing and technical documentation of the installation of the 6TD engine with a capacity of 1000 hp. And reinforced transmission to previously produced T-64A and T-64B tanks to increase their specific power during major overhaul.
The tanks T-64A, T-64AK (commander's), T-64B and T-64B1 with the 6TD engine were adopted by the Soviet Army in accordance with the Order of the Minister of Defense of the USSR of December 21, №0262 and they were appropriately assigned the following brands: Т-64АМ, Т-64АКМ, Т-64БМ and Т-64Б1М.
When creating and improving tanks together with the KMDB, industry institutes and design bureaus of the Ministry of Defense Industry of the USSR, such as VNIITM, VNIIStali, NIID, NIMI, KBTM, TsNII Burevestnik and others, Paton of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, as well as the GBTU and NIIBT of the USSR Ministry of Defense, RAVSVA named after R.Ya. Malinovsky.
After the death of the former Chief Designer of KMDB AA. Morozova, given his great services in the field of domestic tank building and with the aim of perpetuating his memory, in 1979 the Kharkov Design Bureau for Machine Building was given the name AA. Morozov. In this KB AA. Morozov worked over 50 years, 36 of which was the permanent Chief Designer.
KMDB them. A.A. Morozova continued to work towards the improvement of the T-64B tank in order to improve security and in accordance with the decision of the Military Industrial Complex of June 05, 1981 No. 181, in 1981 - 1983 worked and issued the technical drawings for the installation of a dynamic protection tank in a block Performance. The first samples of such tanks were made in 1984. The T-64B tank with dynamic protection was adopted by the Soviet Army in accordance with the Order of the Minister of Defense of 14.01.85. №07 with assignment to it of mark Т-64БВ.
Н.А. Шомин, Начальник и Главный конструктор ХКБМ им.А.А.Морозова с 1976 по 1990 г.г.
In the course of further work to improve the serial T-64B KKBM tank, much work was done to improve the characteristics of the weapons control system and to develop the combat compartment as a whole, which was then adopted without any changes for installation on the T-80U tank.
The T-80U tank was structurally different from the T-64B serial tank in two main features:
In 1983-1985, the Production Association "Zavod im. Malysheva "produced a batch of T-80U tanks with a gas turbine engine.
Since the cost of gas turbine engine is 8-10 times higher than the cost of diesel and has, in addition, a 1.2-1.4 times higher fuel consumption, it was found expedient to entrust KMDB to them. AA Morozova to develop a variant of the T-80U tank with a diesel engine.
Developed back in 1979. The motor-transmission department of the "Object-476" is completely accepted for all tanks in which the power plant with a 6TD engine ("Object-476", T-64BM, T-64B1M, T-64AM) was installed, including for the variant of the tank T-80U with a 6TD engine (factory index of the object is 478B).
Tank 478B is an "Object-476", in which, instead of supporting rollers with internal cushioning, support rollers with an external bus bar are installed.
Tank 478B The resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR of 02.09.85, No. 837-249 was adopted for serial production under the name "T-80U with a 6TD engine" and in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine No. 510 of September 19, In parallel with the T-64B was serially produced by the plant. Malysheva.
Along with the improvement of the T-64A and T-64B tanks, in 1981 design bureaus were being developed in the design bureau to develop a tank with fundamentally new layout and construction solutions. In 1984, the preliminary design of the tank was completed, and in 1985, the technical design was completed. In 1987, the production base of the KMDB produced prototypes of a new tank.
In 1990, in connection with the resignation of Lieutenant-General N.A. Shomin Major-General M.D. Borisyuk, who previously headed the specialized SKB "Rotor" in Chelyabinsk.
Since 1987, in the KMDB, in accordance with the order of the Minister of Defense Industry of the USSR of 27.05.87. No. 328 entered the department 61 PO "Plant named after Malyshev" - a design bureau for the development of heavy caterpillar artillery tractors and engineering machines based on them. Thus, KMDB has become a multi-disciplinary organization engaged not only in the creation of the main battle tanks, but in the entire range of military caterpillar vehicles.
The traction on KHPZ has its own glorious history. It also began with the development in 1924 of the production of the caterpillar tractor Kommunar, as a prototype to which the German tractor Hanomag was chosen. This tractor was used in the Red Army to tow heavy artillery systems. To maintain the production of these machines, a design team was selected as part of the KHP technical office, which, after the separation of tank production, was engaged in the improvement of tractor equipment. In connection with the fact that the tractor Kommunar by the beginning of the 30s was morally obsolete and did not meet the requirements of the Red Army for the power and speed of towing the artillery systems, according to the instructions of the Chief Artillery Director, the designers of the KPZ under the leadership of BN. Voronkov began to develop a tractor unit "Comintern". In order to unify the design of the tractor was based on the nodes of the T-24 tank. Built in 1931, prototypes revealed that the tractor, made by tractor scheme, does not give advantages in comparison with its predecessor.
Disadvantages of the design were eliminated under the leadership of NG. Zubarev. The layout of the tractor was drastically changed. He received a closed cabin, a cargo platform, for the first time in domestic practice, a traction winch was installed. Tests showed that the machine basically meets the requirements for towing artillery systems caliber 152 mm, and since 1935, serial production began. In total, almost 2,000 machines were produced, which were widely used in the army and the national economy until the end of the 1940s.
Б.М. Воронков (в центре)
Сборка первого трактора "Коминтерн"
Designing it for the KhPZ began in 1935, it was named "Voroshilovets".
The first two tractors were built in 1936. The layout scheme remained the same as that of the Comintern, but the tractor was reinforced with a transmission, a running gear, a winch, and since 1938 it was equipped with a diesel engine V-2B, a de-engineered variant of a tank engine, and in the same year Have started serial production.
In 1940, the tractor, together with the first two T-34 tanks as technical support, made a run in severe winter conditions from Kharkov to Moscow and back. Throughout the war, the tractor was effectively used on all fronts and took part in the Victory Parade in Moscow. A total of about 1200 machines were produced.
The appearance of artillery caliber 203-305 mm in armaments required a tractor with a pulling force, which is greater than that of the "Comintern".
Испытания тягача "Ворошиловец"
After the evacuation in 1941 of the KHPZ from Kharkov to Nizhny Tagil, the designers of tractors entered the tank bureau and dealt with the issues of serial production of tanks. However, during the war years at the plant No. 183, they developed AT-42 and AT-45 tractors on the basis of the T-34 tank. It was only after the end of the war that the work on the next generation of tractors was launched on the newly restored plant at the KhPZ site. In 1944, an experimental batch of AT-45s was manufactured here, but in connection with the plant's transition to the production of the T-44 tank, work on it ceased. With the transition of production in 1946 to the T-54 tank, designers under the guidance of M.N. Shchukin and AI. Avtomonov began to develop a tractor unit on the basis of this tank. These works were conducted on the instructions of the State Automobile Inspection and the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute. The tractor successfully passed the tests, and in 1953 the first serial AT-T (the artillery heavy tractor) came out.
A machine of this class was necessary for the army, and the plant produced it in the 50's in large quantities than tanks. AT-T received universal recognition and was continuously improved. Together with other enterprises, it was created on its basis: the overpasser BAT-1 (edition 405U) and BAT-1M (edition 405MU), the air defense control post (426 edition), trench machine (edition 409). The AT-T tractor was superior to any type of wheeled and caterpillar vehicles in difficult terrain conditions, which allowed it to create a special tractor for transportation of goods and towing of sledge trailers in conditions of low temperatures for the regions of the Far North and Antarctica (ed.401A and izd.403A , B) and machines for transantarctic transitions to the interior of the Kharkivchanka and Kharkovchanka-2.
М.Н. Щукин, Главный конструктор завода № 75 с 1944 по 1949гг.
Тягач AT-45 на испытаниях
А.И. Автомонов, Главный конструктор отдела №61 с 1954 по 1965гг.
AT-T was replaced in 1979 by MT-T tractor (multi-purpose conveyor-tractor, edition 429AM). Its development was conducted under the guidance of A.D. Motrich, and then MP. Kalugin and was caused by the fact that the transition of the army to a new generation of tanks required the creation of engineering equipment, capable of acting together with them. In the 80 years on the basis of this product under the leadership of P.I. Sagir was created and serialized by the BAT-2 overpasser (edition 454), the MDC pier (published 453), and after 1990 as part of the conversion, the self-propelled crane KGS-25 and the industrial bulldozer BG-1.
МТ-Т буксирует тяжелое орудие
А.Д.Мотрич, Главный конструктор отдела №61 с 1965 по 1970гг.
М.П.Калугин, Главный конструктор отдела №61 с 1970 по 1974 гг.
П.И.Сагир, Главный конструктор отдела №61 с 1974 по 1987 г.г.
Immediately before the collapse of the Soviet Union and immediately after it, the tank building in our country was in a difficult situation due to a lack of funds for financing promising developments and psychological impediments in the belief that one should not spend money on armaments in conditions of a decline in living standards due to economic Crisis. However, after Ukraine achieved independence, the Kharkov AA Design Bureau for Machine Building. Morozov tried not to lose his leading position in the development of tanks. Although KMDB has constantly faced financial difficulties due to the reduction in defense spending, especially for new weapons, and this situation persisted for several years, research work in the design bureau did not stop. KMDB became the leading developer of tanks of independent Ukraine, which was entrusted with the task of successfully implementing the requirements of the military in real products. At the same time, mass production of tanks was carried out at the State Enterprise "Malyshev Plant". Incredible efforts were made to continue mass production of tanks, at least with low intensity.
In 1993, KMDB demonstrated the T-80UD tank in Pakistan. The demonstration was successful, as a result of which the T-80UD became a potential candidate for the role of Pakistan's new main battle tank, and in the summer of 1995, two T-80UD tanks were delivered to Pakistan, where they were thoroughly tested by the Pakistani military. The tests lasted two months and included both shooting and sea trials. In August 1996, Pakistan ordered Ukraine to supply 320 T-80UD tanks (deliveries from 1997 to 1999). After the signing of the contract with Pakistan, the Ukrainian tank builders encountered various unforeseen obstacles, as about 70 percent of the tank components needed to be imported from other regions of the former Soviet Union, mainly from Russia, where political opposition to such supplies manifested itself to ensure that Ukraine fulfilled the Pakistani contract. As a result, Ukraine had to take measures to create all the necessary production capacities at home. These efforts were successful, and soon Ukraine became self-sufficient in the production of tanks. T-80UD tanks for Pakistan were manufactured with an intensity of 100-110 cars per year. The first batch of tanks was delivered to Pakistan in early 1997, and in November 1999 the deliveries were successfully completed.
In 1993, KMDB decided to continue development on the basis of the T-80UD tank, as a result of which the main battle tank T-84 was created. Works on the T-84 were conducted under the leadership of Mikhail Demyanovich Borisyuk, who headed the KMDB in 1990 and is currently leading the Ukrainian armored vehicle industry.
The first prototype T-84 was created in 1994, and in the same year it was decided to make several more cars. These samples were subsequently subjected to comprehensive tests at the enterprise and army training grounds. After successful completion of the test program in the late 90's T-84 in 1999 was adopted by the Ukrainian Army under the name BM Oplot. On August 24, 2000, 10 Oplot tanks (the latest version of the T-84 tank) took part in the parade dedicated to the tenth anniversary of Ukraine's independence.
The T-84 was offered for export and was one of the tanks that took part in the comparative tests in Greece in 1998, in Turkey in 2000 and in Malaysia in 2000 as part of the tenders for supply of the main battle tanks to these countries.
The tests in Greece were a unique event for that time, because for the first time in history the post-Soviet tank of the "T" series was tested according to NATO methods together with the best examples of NATO tanks. T-84 competed with Western "colleagues" quite successfully, but during the tests it became clear that the design of the tank lacks some technological "novelties", mainly in the field of windmills. The lessons learned during the tests were not lost to the T-84 designers for nothing, and later all efforts were directed to creating a more advanced tank modification, combining the best features of Western and Soviet tanks. Significant progress was achieved in this work, which led to the creation of an improved configuration of the T-84U tank, which was characterized by significant design improvements, which allowed improving a number of characteristics in order to be on a level with all other modern tanks. In particular, a more advanced thermal imaging system was introduced, as well as a satellite navigation support system, an independent laser rangefinder for the commander of a tank, a modern system for recording the bend of the trunk channel,
KMDB conducted a flexible and persistent policy on the rival market for the export of tanks. In particular, in the second half of 1999 and in the first half of 2000, the efforts of the designers were aimed at creating a tank with weapons of the NATO standard. The task was to convert the T-series tank into a tank that would be in line with NATO standards for armament and ammunition. Designers KMDB took on this difficult task, although, of course, this was a serious test of their engineering and design skills. The work was successful and led to the creation of a special modification of the T-84 tank, named "Oplot" (in the course of the work it was called "T-84-120") and equipped with a 120-mm NATO smooth-bore cannon and automatic loading in the aft compartment of the tower . This modification was specially modified on the basis of the requirements imposed on the tank by the Army Command of Turkey. After testing at the plant in April 2000, this sample was sent to Turkey, where it was tested in June-July 2000 under the name "Yatagan".
The tests in Turkey were, apparently, themselves "all-encompassing" of all the international tank tests that had ever been carried out before and included three stages. The first stage was conducted in winter for 4 weeks at a range in the mountains. The second stage was held at a stationary test site in the spring for a month and included mainly maneuverability tests, including snake movement, tank rotations in place and in motion around its axis, tests of acceleration, turns in motion at various speeds and With a different turning radius. The third stage consisted of two-month tests in the field, which took place in the summer and included mainly shooting tests.
These tests clearly demonstrated that T-84 is equally effective in various conditions of Europe, Asia and other regions and is able to perform the tasks facing it in all weather conditions in difficult terrain.
The complication of the design of the T-84 tank caused the need to develop highly effective computerized training facilities. The first work experience in this area KMDB was received back in 1996, when a training simulator for a tank driver mechanic with the use of computer technology was created. In the second half of the 1990s, KMDB supplied several simulators to the mechanic-driver of the T-80UD tank in Pakistan.
The initial version of the driver-mechanic simulator was static. However, soon developed an improved version - a dynamic simulator driver-mechanic, installed on a dynamic platform with three degrees of freedom. In the late 90's, new simulators were created-a gunner's simulator, a commander's simulator and a complex modular simulator for the crew of the T-84 tank. All these simulators were installed on dynamic platforms with three degrees of freedom.
Танк Т-84 на выставке "IDEX'97" в Объединенных Арабских Эмиратах (1997 г.)